Convergence in Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Using Patent Analysis

Eunhee Kim, Jaejon Kim, Joon Koh


Since the 1990s, information and communication technology (ICT) has been perceived as the critical technology for economic development, and the ICT industry itself has been growing exceptionally fast. Moreover, technology convergence in ICT has received particular attention. ICT innovations diffuse into existing products and thus come to form a new integral part of the goods. This is an exploratory research to examine technology convergence of the supply side as a firm level in the ICT sector using International Patent Classification (IPC) of 43,636 sample patents from 1995 to 2008. This study finds a degree of merger and relationships between different technology domains through the association rule mining of patent co-classification. This type of analysis helps companies to take strategies under the environment of technological trajectory change.


technological convergence; information and communication technology (ICT); patent; international patent classification (IPC); co-classification; association rule mining

Texto completo:

PDF (English)


Agrawal, R., Imielinski, T., Swami, A. (1993) ‘Mining association rules between sets of items in large databases’, Proceedings of ACM SIGMOD, 207-216.

Agrawal, R., Srikant, R. (1994) ‘Fast algorithms for mining association rules’, Proceedings of the 20th international conference on very large databases, 487-499.

Bainbridge, W.S., (2006) ‘Transformative Concepts in Scientific Convergence’, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1093, 24–45.

Brin, S., Motwany, R., Ullman, J.D. and Tsur, S. (1997) ‘Dynamic itemset counting and implication rules for market basket data’, Proceedings of ACM SIGMOD, pp.255–264.

Bröring, S. (2005) The Front End of Innovation in Converging Industries: The case of nutraceuticals and functional foods, DUV, Wiesbaden, Germany, 342.

Curran, C., Leker, J. (2009) ‘Seeing the Next iPhone Coming Your Way: How to Anticipate Converging Industries’, PICMET 2009 Proceedings, August 2-6, Portland, Oregon USA.

Curran, C., Leker, J. (2011) ‘Patent indicators for monitoring convergence – examples from NFF and ICT’, Technological Forecasting & Social Change 78, 256-273.

Duysters, G., Hagedoorn, J. (1998) ‘Technological convergence in the IT industry: the role of strategic technology alliances and technological competencies’, International Journal of the Economics of Business 5 (3), 355–368.

Ernst, H. (1995) ‘Patenting strategies in the german mechanical engineering industry and their relationship to company performance’, Technovation 15 (4), 225–240.

Fai, F., Tunzelmann, V. N. (2001) ‘Industry-specific competencies and converging technological systems: evidence from patents’, Structural change and Economic Dynamics (12), 141-170.

Gambardella, A., Torrisi, S. (1998) ’Does technological convergence imply convergence in markets? Evidence from the electronics industry’, Research Policy 27, 445–463

Greenstein, S., Khanna, T. (1997) ‘What does industry convergence mean’, in Yoffie, D. (ed.) (1997) Competing in the age of digital convergence, Boston, MA, Harvard Business School Press.

Hacklin, F. (2008) Management of Convergence in Innovation – Strategies and Capabilities for Value Creation Beyond Blurring Industry Boundaries, Physica-Verlag, Heidelberg

Hacklin, F., Marxt, C., Fahrni, F. (2009) ‘Coevolutionary cycles of convergence: An extrapolation from the ICT industry’, Technological Forecasting & Social Change 76, 723–736.

Han, J., Kamber, M., & Pei, J. (2006) Data mining: concepts and techniques. Morgan kaufmann.

Jiao, J., Zhang, Y. (2005) ‘Product portfolio identification based on association rule mining’, Computer-Aided Design 37(2), 149-172.

Karvonen, M., Kässi, T. (2010) ‘Patent Citations as a Method for Analysing Industrial Convergence’, PICMET 2011 Proceedings of Technology Management for Global Economic Growth.

Kim, E. H., Park, Y. (2006) ‘An exploratory study of risks in information system development projects: using association rule mining’, International Journal of Technology Intelligence and Planning, 2(4), 404-417.

Meyer, M. (2000) ‘Does science push technology? Patents citing scientific literature’, Research Policy 29 (3), 409–434.

Lind, J. (2004) ‘Convergence: History of term usage and lessons for firm strategists’, In ITS 15th Biennial Conference, Berlin, Germany, International Telecommunications Society (ITS).

Murray, F. (2002) ‘Innovation as co-evolution of scientific and technological networks: exploring tissue engineering’, Research Policy 31 (8–9), 1389–1403.

Pennings, J. M., Puranam, P. (2001) ‘Market convergence & firm strategy: new directions for theory and research’, ECIS Conference, The Future of Innovation Studies, Eindhoven, Netherlands.

Rosenberg, N. (1963) ‘Technological Change in the Machine Tool Industry, 1840–1910’, The Journal of Economic History 23(4), 414-443.

Stieglitz, N. (2003) ‘Digital Dynamics and Types of Industry Convergence – The Evolution of the Handheld Computers Market in the 1990s and beyond’, in Christensen F. J., Maskell P. (eds.) The Industrial Dynamics of the New Digital Economy, London: Edward Elgar.

Tan, P., Steinbach, M. Kumar, V. (2005) Introduction to Data Mining, Addison-Wesley.

Wing, W., Ye, X., Kui, L.. (2011) ‘Measuring convergence of China’s ICT industry: An input-output analysis’, Telecommunications Policy 35, 301-313.

WIPO (2008) World Patent Report: A Statistical Review

Zhang, C., Zhang, S. (2002) Association Rule Mining: models and algorithms, Berlin: Springer.